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Basics of Data Communication

Hillary Cyril



Data Transfer

Data Communication is used to exchange information over a physical medium such as radio, light, fiber, coaxial cable, or electricity. Data transmission and data reception is the process of receiving data over a physical point-to-point communication channel and subsequently transferring and processing it over a different point-to-point communication channel. Examples of these channels are optical fibers, radio communications channels, stored data channels, and computer networks. Data Communication includes various modes such as thermal data communication, packet data communication, and ATM control data communication.

In Data Communication, information transmitted from one source to another is converted into the form of information that is transmitted or received by a receiver and vice versa. The means of transiting the data is done either via a point-to-Point system where one device is designed to receive the transmitted signal and acts as a receiving instrument or through a network. The network system can be either private or public. Private networks are usually established between two or more computers.

Networking in data communication systems is also based on principles and concepts. One of the most important principles in networking is the principle of multipoint operation. This principle basically involves having more than one receiver or transmitter within a given communication system. Usually, such a system is called Wide Area Network (WAN) or Wide Area Local Area Network (WANLS). Another fundamental characteristic is the principle of layer 2 multipoint operation.


Another fundamental feature is the encapsulation of data communications. Encapsulation means converting an analog signal into an electronic signal, usually in the form of a jpeg, avi, wma, MPEG, or other compressed file formats. Further, an IP network can include Internet protocol (IP) networking for the transmission of packets. Some Data Communication systems also include Wide Area Network (WAN) and Local Area Network (LAN) for local area network (LAN) communication.

There are various benefits of data communication systems, which depend on the hardware configuration and other network elements. The most important benefit of a data communication system is that it makes the possible fast and convenient transfer of information and application software between computers and other devices. It also allows devices to function more efficiently since there is a better utilization of bandwidth. Another benefit is that data communications helps reduce costs, as they have lower operational overhead. They also provide a secure and stable network environment. Further, data communication helps to prevent downtime caused by physical or logical breakdowns, system failure, traffic congestion, and other network problems.

Data communications systems have become essential in various industries, including e-business, large companies, educational institutions, and health care sectors. There are many types of data network communications. Among them are Wide Area Network (WAN), Local Area Network (LAN), packet switching technology, circuit switching technology, unified communications, digital subscriber line (DSL), and Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). Wide Area Networks are usually used for point-to-point connections, while Local Area Networks are used for point to multi-point connections. Packet Switching technology is used in the case of Wide Area Networks, while VoIP systems use voice transmission technology to send sound and data over the network.

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